# On the speed of Algorithms and Faster Hardware

April 08 2014

Today I’ve read on Twitter a half-joke saying that basically we can just implement our code and then wait for faster computers to improve the speed of our programs. As many might know, that’s not actually the case, but instead of trying to explain this, I’d prefer to let the authors of The Design and Analysis of Computer Algorithms explain that for me.

On section 1.1 of that book the authors are analyzing the speed of algorithms based on their problem size and their “asymptotic behavior”. They say:

One might suspect that the tremendous increase in speed of calculations brought about by the advent of the present generation of digital computers would decrease the importance of efficient algorithms. However, just the opposite is true.

Then they propose the following set of algorithms with their time complexities:

Algorithm Time Complexity
A1 n
A2 n log n
A3 n^2
A4 n^3
A5 2^n

Where time complexity is the number of steps required to process some input of size n, and one unit of time equals one millisecond.

Then they present the maximum problem size for each algorithm. For example A1 would be able to process a problem size of 1000 in one second, or 3.6 x 10^6 in one hour. Compare that with A5, which can process 9 elements per second, or a maximum of 21 in one hour.

So then we get a computer than is 10 time faster of what he have right now. Here’s the speedup comparison table the authors provide:

Algorithm Time Complexity Max. Problem Size Before Speed-up Max. Problem Size After Speed-up
A1 n S1 10 * S1
A2 n log n S2 Approx 10 * S2 for large S2
A3 n^2 S3 3.16 * S3
A4 n^3 S4 2.15 * S4
A5 2^n S5 S5 + 3.3

As we can see, algorithm A5 could only increase the size of the problem by 3.

So does the speed of a computer affects the speed of an algorithms, yes; is it a significant improvement, usually not, unless of course we are talking o changes in word sizes, which could benefit numerical algorithms; or bigger CPU caches and so on.

Still, in general, it’s always better to design a proper algorithm, or even better, use an algorithm designed by the experts.

Bibliography:

• Aho, Alfred V., John E. Hopcroft, and Jeffrey D. Ullman. 1974. The design and analysis of computer algorithms. Reading, Mass: Addison-Wesley Pub. Co.